Coffee Biology


There are various different species of coffee plant in existence. These plants are what your coffee drink is made from. The berries of the coffee plant are harvested and de-seeded. The seeds are dried, roasted, ground and then extracted into a coffee drink.
The two main types of coffee plant that produce beans classed as “Arabica” and “Robusta”. Arabica is the most desired of the two and is normally cultivated and harvested in Ethiopia, South East Sudan and in parts of Kenya.The plants that produce Robusta type beans are often found in Central and West Africa. Coffee farming in Africa ranges from Uganda to Guinea mostly but is grown in many other African countries. Robusta beans are also grown in Sudan too.
There are various other less desired breeds of coffee plants but all are classed as “Rubiaceae” a large family of plants. The shrub of the coffee plantation is evergreen and when left unmaintained can grow to up to 15 feet tall. The plants have a white flower that bloom together, they have a strong aroma also. The leaves of the plant are a dark green and the berries eventually ripen to a pinky red color. The berries are normally large enough to contain two coffee beans. The berries take between 7 to 9 months before ripening enough to be harvested.
The plants that produce Arabica beans are generally self pollinating, so they are very easy to maintain and one of the reasons that are so well regarded. Robusta plants require a little help and more maintenance.

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